Productive Use of Video for Teacher Learning

Productive Use of Video for Teacher Learning
Session Focus and Relevance
In this interactive workshop, participants will consider purposes for video analysis and the planning and implementation of video analysis activities that support rich conversations and deep teacher learning. This “how to” session draws from an extensive line of research and development examining the impact of videocase-based analysis-of-practice learning experiences on both teacher and student learning in various contexts: elementary and secondary settings; face-to-face, online, and blended settings; preservice, induction, and inservice. During the workshop, participants will engage in three key conversations each catalyzed by analysis of a short video clip to 1) identify fruitful purposes for video analysis, 2) consider the planning and resources that support rich conversations about video, and 3) reflect on key features of effective facilitation of video analysis.

Participants will leave with access to a suite of tools and resources for implementing videocase-based analysis of practice learning experiences appropriate for preservice and inservice contexts, including access to an online collection of video clips of K-12 classroom science teaching.

This session will be of interest to ASTE members engaged in science teacher education for preservice, induction, and inservice teachers. The session may also be of interest to those considering the use of video to improve science instruction in higher education settings and researchers interested in developing lines of research relating teacher learning using practice-based approaches and professional reflection on practice. The video examples used in the session will highlight classroom contexts as well as video of professional development (PD) sessions showing teachers in productive conversations using video.

Learning Objectives and Instructional Strategies
By participating in this workshop, attendees will:
1. Increase their understanding of the structure, substance, and resources used in videocase-based, analysis-of-practice.
2. Consider the intentionality of decisions involved in planning and implementing effective video analysis-based learning experiences.
3. Reflect on the skills and knowledge that facilitators (and coaches) draw on to lead analysis-of-practice using video for teacher learning.

To reach these workshop goals, participants will explore:
• What goals can I achieve using video analysis for teacher learning?
• What should I consider when planning for video analysis?
• What do facilitators need to know and do during video analysis?
Using analysis of short video clips as catalysts for conversations around each of these core questions, participants will consider the design and planning considerations that lead to productive spaces for video analysis including:
1. Articulating specific learning goals for video-based conversations
2. Creating a safe space for vulnerability, struggle, curiosity, and growth
3. Selecting and sequencing videos to meet different learning goals and fit within a learning trajectory
4. Creating or adapting tools for analysis
5. Being responsive during video-based conversations

In order to judge the effectiveness of the workshop at meeting these objectives, presenters will provide 1) multiple opportunities for discussion and questions 2) the opportunity for written reflection.

Workshop Agenda (120 minutes)
Introduce the goals and agenda of the workshop and provide an opportunity for ASTE members to introduce themselves and their connections to the goals of the workshop.

Conversation 1: Goals of video analysis
Participants will be organized into small groups to analyze a short video clip to notice 1) the student ideas emerging through instruction, and 2) the teacher moves that revealed student thinking. They will use this experience as a springboard to discuss the purposes of their current use of video for teacher learning and brainstorm additional purposes and outcomes of video analysis.
Materials for Conversation 1: note-taking graphic organizer

Conversation 2: Planning for video analysis
Participants will analyze a video clip using additional resources that add greater structure to their analysis than in the first conversation. They will use this experience to discuss the planning that goes into effective teacher conversations during video analysis, with a focus on creating community norms, designing effective analysis prompts, using tools, and selecting and sequencing videos to support teacher learning.
Materials for Conversation 2: norms for video analysis, video transcripts, video analysis protocol

Conversation 3: Leading learning with video analysis
Participants will analyze a video of a PD session. They will consider the knowledge, skills, and abilities necessary for leaders of video-based teacher learning and how reflection on practice by facilitators can lead to improved teacher learning outcomes.
Materials provided for Conversation 3: video transcript, video analysis protocol

Closing (Next Steps)
• Available resources (online website)
• Presenter contact information
• Reflection

Rationale and Interest to ASTE Members
There is wide agreement that video-based analysis of practice holds promise as a powerful tool for teacher learning in a variety of settings—preservice, inservice, online, or face-to-face to name a few (Borko, Jacobs, Eiteljorb, & Pittman, 2008; Gaudin & Chaliès, 2015; Santagata, 2009; Sherin, 2004; Zhang, Lundeberg, Koehler, & Eberhardt, 2011). Video-based activities can help teachers create a rich vision of instructional practice, learn to notice key elements of student thinking, consider instructional moves that support student reasoning, develop habits of teacher reflection on practice, and encourage professional dialogue. However, not all video analysis is fruitful for learning (Borko, et al., 2008; Calandra, Gurvitch, & Lund, 2008; Santagata; 2009). At times, discussion of video can be shallow or focused on superficial aspects of the learning context, perpetuate teacher biases, and lead to conversations hyper-critical of the classroom interactions or hyper-complementary of the teacher in the video. Many well-intentioned teacher educators and PD providers lack knowledge about the mechanisms of the video-based approach that lead to teacher learning.

The leaders of this workshop have more than 10 years of experience facilitating learning with video and rigorous research findings showing the method to have impact on teacher learning—and ultimately student learning (Roth, et al., 2011; Roth et al., 2017; Roth et al., 2018; Taylor, et al., 2017). Our work, primarily based in the Science Teachers Learning from Lesson Analysis (STeLLA) and Videocases for Science Teacher Analysis (ViSTA) programs, is designed to situate learning opportunities in the everyday practice of teaching (Ball & Cohen, 1999; Putnam & Borko, 1997) and create opportunities for teachers to collaborate on improving their practice.

One key feature of our approach to analysis-of-practice using video involves grounding conversations in a conceptual framework that articulates a vision of effective science instruction (Roth, et al., 2017). We established learning goals for teachers based on the conceptual framework, using analysis of video as one activity structure to meet these learning goals. In our teacher learning settings, analysis of video has many purposes that vary over the trajectory of teacher learning. Video analysis is used to help teachers create a common vision and language for talking about specific instructional moves. It slows down the action in a classroom, allowing analysis of the in-the-moment decisions by the teacher and discussion of possible alternatives teacher moves. It can lead participants to recognize their own questions about the science content highlighted in the video. The same video can be watched multiple times to analyze different aspects of instruction, science content, student ideas, and equity. Different learning goals can be accomplished by sequencing video analysis. For example, watching video of classrooms taught by teachers external to the learning community helps develop skills and comfort with video analysis while establishing norms for analysis and conversation. Later analysis of video of self and peers supports goals of teacher reflection and refinement of their enactment of effective instructional practices.

Through this line of research, we developed protocols and tools to focus teachers’ learning during video analysis that will be shared during the workshop (Bintz, Roth, & Hvidsten, 2019; Roth, et al., 2017). The three conversations provide opportunities to discuss these protocols and tools as well as alternative resources available for productive video analysis.

Facilitators decisions and actions can significantly impact participants’ learning (Borko, Koellner, & Jacobs, 2014; van Es, Tunney, Goldsmith, & Seago, 2012). We have created a knowledge-in-use framework for leaders of video-based professional learning (Landes & Roth, 2013) that posits that effective leaders of video-based learning have a deep understanding of 1) effective classroom science teaching and learning, 2) the disciplinary science content teachers are teaching, and 3) the unique aspects of how teachers learn and building a community of practice for open discussion and reflection on practice.

With a growing emphasis on the use of video analysis in preservice and inservice contexts, it is essential to consider how the design of video-based learning experiences promote deep, rich, and coherent teacher learning. Many ASTE members have experience working with video in their own settings that they can share during the three conversations structuring the proposed workshop. Other ASTE members will come with questions about how and why to use video and the resources available to support the use of video in their contexts. The workshop is designed to both answer some of those questions and to build relationships among participants for ongoing learning about video-based activity structures beyond the workshop. This workshop will support the ASTE mission of promoting excellence in science teacher education by exploring the elements that contribute to productive use of video for teacher learning.